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**What is the first step in conducting scientific research?**Answer: Identifying the research problem or question.**What is the second step in conducting scientific research?**Answer: Conducting a literature review to gather relevant information on the topic.**What is the third step in conducting scientific research?**Answer: Formulating a hypothesis or research question.**What is the fourth step in conducting scientific research?**Answer: Designing the research study, including selecting a sample and deciding on research methods.**What is the fifth step in conducting scientific research?**Answer: Collecting and analyzing data.**What is the sixth step in conducting scientific research?**Answer: Drawing conclusions and making recommendations based on the data.**What is the seventh step in conducting scientific research?**Answer: Communicating the results to the scientific community through publication or presentation.**What is the difference between qualitative and quantitative research?**Answer: Qualitative research focuses on gathering and analyzing non-numerical data, while quantitative research focuses on gathering and analyzing numerical data.**What are some common research designs?**Answer: Experimental, correlational, cross-sectional, longitudinal, and case study designs.**What is a hypothesis?**Answer: A testable prediction or statement about the relationship between variables in a research study.**What is a null hypothesis?**Answer: The null hypothesis is a statement that there is no significant difference between two variables or groups.**What is a dependent variable?**Answer: The dependent variable is the variable being measured in a research study.**What is an independent variable?**Answer: The independent variable is the variable that is manipulated or controlled in a research study.**What is a sample?**Answer: A sample is a subset of the population being studied.**What is a population?**Answer: The population is the entire group of individuals or objects that the researcher is interested in studying.**What is sampling bias?**Answer: Sampling bias occurs when the sample is not representative of the population being studied.**What is a random sample?**Answer: A random sample is a sample in which each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected.**What is a convenience sample?**Answer: A convenience sample is a sample that is selected based on availability or accessibility.**What is a stratified sample?**Answer: A stratified sample is a sample that is divided into subgroups based on certain characteristics and then a random sample is selected from each subgroup.**What is a hypothesis test?**Answer: A hypothesis test is a statistical test used to determine the likelihood of the null hypothesis being true.**What is statistical significance?**Answer: Statistical significance is the likelihood that the results of a study are not due to chance.**What is a p-value?**Answer: A p-value is the probability of obtaining a result as extreme as the one observed, assuming the null hypothesis is true.**What is a Type I error?**Answer: A Type I error occurs when the null hypothesis is rejected even though it is true.**What is a Type II error?**Answer: A Type II error occurs when the null hypothesis is not rejected even though it is false.**What is correlation?**Answer: Correlation is a statistical measure of the relationship between two variables.**What is causation?**Answer: Causation is the relationship between an event (the cause) and a second event (the effect), where the second event is a consequence of the first.**What is a regression analysis?**Answer: A regression analysis is a statistical method used to determine the relationship between two or more variables.**What is a coefficient of determination?**Answer: The coefficient of determination is a statistic that indicates how well the regression line fits

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