# Research Steps, Math and Statistics

1. What is the first step in conducting scientific research? Answer: Identifying the research problem or question.
2. What is the second step in conducting scientific research? Answer: Conducting a literature review to gather relevant information on the topic.
3. What is the third step in conducting scientific research? Answer: Formulating a hypothesis or research question.
4. What is the fourth step in conducting scientific research? Answer: Designing the research study, including selecting a sample and deciding on research methods.
5. What is the fifth step in conducting scientific research? Answer: Collecting and analyzing data.
6. What is the sixth step in conducting scientific research? Answer: Drawing conclusions and making recommendations based on the data.
7. What is the seventh step in conducting scientific research? Answer: Communicating the results to the scientific community through publication or presentation.
8. What is the difference between qualitative and quantitative research? Answer: Qualitative research focuses on gathering and analyzing non-numerical data, while quantitative research focuses on gathering and analyzing numerical data.
9. What are some common research designs? Answer: Experimental, correlational, cross-sectional, longitudinal, and case study designs.
10. What is a hypothesis? Answer: A testable prediction or statement about the relationship between variables in a research study.
11. What is a null hypothesis? Answer: The null hypothesis is a statement that there is no significant difference between two variables or groups.
12. What is a dependent variable? Answer: The dependent variable is the variable being measured in a research study.
13. What is an independent variable? Answer: The independent variable is the variable that is manipulated or controlled in a research study.
14. What is a sample? Answer: A sample is a subset of the population being studied.
15. What is a population? Answer: The population is the entire group of individuals or objects that the researcher is interested in studying.
16. What is sampling bias? Answer: Sampling bias occurs when the sample is not representative of the population being studied.
17. What is a random sample? Answer: A random sample is a sample in which each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected.
18. What is a convenience sample? Answer: A convenience sample is a sample that is selected based on availability or accessibility.
19. What is a stratified sample? Answer: A stratified sample is a sample that is divided into subgroups based on certain characteristics and then a random sample is selected from each subgroup.
20. What is a hypothesis test? Answer: A hypothesis test is a statistical test used to determine the likelihood of the null hypothesis being true.
21. What is statistical significance? Answer: Statistical significance is the likelihood that the results of a study are not due to chance.
22. What is a p-value? Answer: A p-value is the probability of obtaining a result as extreme as the one observed, assuming the null hypothesis is true.
23. What is a Type I error? Answer: A Type I error occurs when the null hypothesis is rejected even though it is true.
24. What is a Type II error? Answer: A Type II error occurs when the null hypothesis is not rejected even though it is false.
25. What is correlation? Answer: Correlation is a statistical measure of the relationship between two variables.
26. What is causation? Answer: Causation is the relationship between an event (the cause) and a second event (the effect), where the second event is a consequence of the first.
27. What is a regression analysis? Answer: A regression analysis is a statistical method used to determine the relationship between two or more variables.
28. What is a coefficient of determination? Answer: The coefficient of determination is a statistic that indicates how well the regression line fits